Tools in this category are low-power and low-maintenance remote sensors to monitor activities such as use of technologies and changes in environmental conditions. These sensors were developed to collect unbiased, precise, real-time data on technology adoptions and program interventions.

Each featured technology measures something particular such as stove usage, air quality, water quality, infrastructure and forest logging. Therefore, we categorized the tools into 6 groups depending on the object of measurement.

Sensor Type:
Sweetsense Stove
SWEETSense STOVE monitors cookstove use, both its pattern and duration, in low-resource settings. The sensor can send out alerts at pre-defined alarm points. Data are relayed over the GSM networks directly to the cloud server, where they are analyzed and graphed to optimize the performance of a particular cookstove intervention.
Berkeley Air Sums
The Stove Use Monitoring System (SUMS) provides insights into cookstove usage patterns, number of meals cooked, and time of use by recording stove temperature changes. Data sampled by SUMS are uploaded to a computer via a data cable and further analyzed using proprietary algorithms developed to quantify cookstove usage in households.
StoveTrace monitors frequency of stove use, duration of each use, as well as estimates fuel consumption. Temperature data are wirelessly uploaded from a cellphone to a server using mobile networks. Sensors can run indefinitely when connected to main power or solar panels.
Sweetsense Flow
SWEETSense FLOW is a modified flowmeter that monitors water movement through a pipe to derive water usage in various appliances, such as hand washing stations. Sensor can send out alerts at pre-defined alarm point and relays data over GSM networks directly to the cloud server. A variant has also been developed to specifically measure usage of rural hand pumps.
Sweetsense Water
SWEETSense WATER monitors water consumption in domestic, industrial and outdoor environments. It can be customized with a variety of water-quality sensors upon request. Sensor can send out alerts at pre-defined alarm point and relays data over the GSM networks directly to the cloud server.
Mobosens is a smartphone-attachable sensor that detects concentrations of different water contaminants, including nitrate, arsenic, ammonia and phosphate, and transmits the data to preferred social media outlets and private servers. Further expansion plans on this nanotechnology-enabled sensor include other contaminants, such as heavy metal, carcinogens, and bacteria, as well as improvements to render the tool better-suited for use in low-resource settings.
Nexleaf Black Carbon Filters
Nexleaf Black Carbon Filter Analyzer measures black carbon concentration in the air. It uses a quartz fine-grade filter, on which black carbon particulates from air-pumped smoke settle on. Using a special reference card to calibrate for different lighting conditions and camera configurations, a user will snap a picture of the exposed filter using any cell phone camera and send it to the server where it's further processed to determine the concentration of black carbon in the air.
Sweetsense Air
SWEETSense AIR monitors environmental air quality in domestic, industrial and outdoor environments using various types of gas emission sensors, including CO and CO2. It also measures frequency of use and thermal efficiency of a cookstove. Sensor can send out alerts at pre-defined alarm point and relays data over GSM networks directly to the cloud server.
Ucb Particle And Temperature Sensor Ucb Pats
UCB Particle and Temperature Sensor is a small, portable data-logging device that uses an optical scattering sensor to measure concentrations of fine particle (~PM2.5) in indoor environments. It saves sampled data until transferred and analyzed by a fit-for-purpose processing software on a computer. An upgraded version, PATS+, which is due to be launched in early 2015, will include other pollutants such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and black carbon. It logs data to an SD card storage and contains multiple power options. Optional software provides interactive data handling and device management.
Sweetsense Structure
SWEETSense STRUCTURE measures usage of facilities including homes, offices, pedestrian pathways and bridges, through three sensor choices: door use sensors, motion detectors, and cameras. Sensor can send out alerts at pre-defined alarm point and relays data over GSM networks directly to the cloud server.
Nexleaf Cold Chain Monitors
Nexleaf Cold Chain Monitor is a cell phone-enabled sensor that remotely monitors the temperatures of refrigerated units used to store and transport vaccines and drug along the supply chain from warehouses to local health clinics. Sensor periodically transmits temperature data to the cloud server that oversees and provides SMS and email alerts if the temperature-sensitive good reach critical temperatures.
Rainforest Connection
Rainforest Connection Sensor is a solar-powered listening device that monitors and pinpoints signs of environmental destruction activities at great distance to prevent illegal logging, poaching, and enrichment of indigenous communities' habitats in rain forest areas. The sensor consists of recycled cell-phones equipped with solar panels and special enclosures to withstand tough weather conditions when placed in tree canopies. Upon picking up the sound of a chainsaw, gunshot, or animal distress call, the device uses minimal GSM connectivity to transmit an alert to a cloud server.