Tools in this category are low-power and low-maintenance remote sensors to monitor activities such as use of technologies and changes in environmental conditions. These sensors were developed to collect unbiased, precise, real-time data on technology adoptions and program interventions.

Each featured technology measures something particular such as stove usage, air quality, water quality, infrastructure and forest logging. Therefore, we categorized the tools into 6 groups depending on the object of measurement.

Sensor Type:
Sweetsense Stove
SWEETSense STOVE measures cookstove use, both its usage pattern and duration, by households in low-resource settings.
StoveTrace monitors frequency of stove use, duration of each use, as well as estimates fuel consumption.
Berkeley Air Sums
SUMS records stove temperature changes to evaluate cook stove usage in households.
Sweetsense Water
SWEETSense WATER monitors water consumption in domestic, industrial and outdoor environments, such as through a portable water filter. It can be customized with a variety of water quality sensors upon request.
Sweetsense Flow
SWEETSense FLOW is a modified flow meter that monitors water movement through a pipe to estimate water usage in various appliances.
Mobosens is a smartphone-attachable sensor that detects concentrations of different water contaminants and transmits the data to preferred social media outlets and private servers.
Sweetsense Air
SWEETSense AIR monitors environmental air quality in domestic, industrial and outdoor environments as well as measures thermal efficiency of a cook stove using various types of gas emission sensors, including CO and CO2.
Nexleaf Black Carbon Filters
Nexleaf Black Carbon Filter Analyzer is a set of instruments that measures black carbon concentration in the air.
Ucb Particle And Temperature Sensor Ucb Pats
UCB-PATS is a small, portable data-logging device that uses an optical scattering sensor to measure fine particle (~PM2.5) concentrations in indoor environments.
Sweetsense Structure
SWEETSense STRUCTURE monitors usage of facilities including homes, offices, pedestrian pathways and bridges, through three sensor choices: door use sensors, motion detectors, and cameras.
Nexleaf Cold Chain Monitors
Nexleaf Cold Chain Monitor is a cell phone-enabled sensor that remotely monitors the temperatures of refrigerated units used to store and transport vaccines and drug.
Rainforest Connection
Rainforest Connection Sensor is a solar-powered listening device that monitors and pinpoints signs of environmental destruction activities at great distance to prevent illegal logging, poaching, and enrichment of indigenous communities' habitats in rain forest areas.